While the citizens of the United States of America* were celebrating the Fourth of July, Independence* Day, other celebrations of a more ecstatic and rapturous nature were happening at NASA*. The space probe Juno finally completed its journey of 2.8 billion kilometres (1.8 billion miles) and began its orbit around Jupiter, the gas giant of our solar system. Juno is part of NASA’s New Frontiers space exploration programme and was launched on 5 August 2011* from Cape Canaveral in Florida at a cost of 1.1 billion US dollars* (as at that date). Jupiter is named after the chief god of Roman mythology, with Juno being his goddess wife. It is one tenth the size of the sun and 318 times the size of the Earth. It takes 12 years to go round the sun but because of its fast rate of* spin, the day is only 9.8 hours long.
* Omission phase "United States of America"
* "Independence" A well-known phrase, therefore safeto use the contraction, but could be written in full if felt necessary, to distinguish it from "independent"
* "NASA" An acronym, i.e. initial letters pronounced as a word, therefore use an outline for the spoken sound
* "dollars" You can intersect stroke D for "dollars" where convenient but not possible here
* "rate of" Not using the F Hook for "of", because it might be misread as "rotation" which also makes sense in this context
After launch Juno was placed in a heliocentric* orbit beyond the orbit of Mars and after thirteen* months it carried out* two deep space manoeuvres, then returned towards Earth for a gravity assist flyby in October 2013* to boost its velocity, in order to* put it on a trajectory to Jupiter. After this came two years of quiet cruise and then the beginning of the Jupiter approach phase. It performed a large orbit insertion manoeuvre to place it in a capture orbit, followed by a period reduction manoeuvre in order to achieve its science orbit position. Juno will circle the planet 37 times over the course of the next twenty months, in an elliptical orbit in order to* avoid the regions of high radiation. At the end of its mission, Juno will make a deorbit burn which will result in a destructive entry into Jupiter’s atmosphere. The purpose for the planned destruction of the probe is to avoid* a possible future collision with one of Jupiter’s moons and any resultant contamination.
* "heliocentric" The outline needs a downward L, therefore it cannot have a Tick Hay
* "thirteen" Ensure the hook is clear, so it is not misread as "thirty"
* "carried out" Halving for the T of "out"
* "2013" Long slash for current century, arbitrary sign with no phonetic value
* Omission phrase "in ord(er to)"
* "avoid" Insert the diphthong, as it is similar to "evade" in outline and meaning
The spacecraft’s scientific instrument payload is as follows:
- Gravity Science is a gravity radio science system
- MWR* is a six-wavelength microwave radiometer for atmospheric sounding and composition
- MAG is a vector magnetometer
- JADE (Jovian Auroral Distributions Experiment) and JEDI (Jupiter Energetic Particle Detector Instrument) are plasma and energetic particle detectors
- Waves is a radio plasma wave experiment
- UVS* is an ultraviolet imager/spectrometer
- JIRAM (Jovian Infrared Auroral Mapper) is an infrared imager/spectrometer
- JunoCam is a colour camera that will take photos of the poles and atmosphere
* "MWR" "UVS" These are initialisms, therefore use lower case longhand letters, the others are acronyms which can be pronounced as words, like NASA in para 1
Jupiter is five times further from the sun than Earth and receives one twenty-fifth of the amount of sunlight that we do, therefore the solar panels are larger than those used on other missions. Juno is the first spacecraft to travel this far using only solar power. The three solar panels were folded into four segments in order to fit into the launch vehicle, and when the solar array is open* the spacecraft has a span of 66 feet or 20 metres. The orbit paths have been planned so that the panels are in continuous sunlight. Power requirements are quite low, as it is only needed for approximately 6 hours per orbit, at the time when Juno is closest to the planet, in order to* power the scientific equipment. Juno has a titanium* outer shell and is carrying the first radiation shielded electronics vault, to protect the sensitive electronics, an essential feature for exploring in this heavy radiation space environment.
* "open" Ensure the P is clearly full length, as "opened" would also make sense
* Omission phrase "in ord(er to)"
* "titanium" Can also be pronounced "tye-"
Juno resumed high-rate communications on 5 July and powered up some of the scientific instruments the next day. The next close flyby will be on 27 August, within 2,600 miles of the cloud top, and scientists will start to receive the transmission of the first preliminary science data including information about the composition and temperature of the swirling gas clouds (which presently are known to be mainly hydrogen and helium), cloud movements, how much water is in its atmosphere, information about what lies beneath the cloud canopy and the behaviour of the weather systems that give the planet its striped appearance. They will be able to map its magnetic and gravity fields, and its magnetosphere and auroras at the poles and use this information to understand how the magnetic force affects its atmosphere. Forty years ago NASA's Pioneer probe gained the first close-up photographs of the striated gas clouds and the high pressure* vortex (commonly called the red spot), at a distance of 81,000 miles above the clouds.
* Omission phrase "high (pre)ssure"
Juno will be constantly carrying out complex manoeuvres to avoid the intense turbulence caused* by Jupiter's fast rate of spin and space debris, principally in its ring of dust and rock fragments. The engineers at NASA have an ongoing task to keep Juno safe to continue its mission, but at its end the spacecraft will itself become space debris and finally descend into Jupiter’s atmosphere. The mission will continue back on home ground, as the information that Juno relayed back to Earth is processed, enabling scientists to improve their understanding of planet formation and unravel the mysteries of a planet that has been described as a relentless unforgiving monster and the biggest baddest planet in the solar system. Once the scientists have all this data, they may find that the Jovian giant is not a baddie but more a prolific giver of valuable information that progresses our scientific knowledge and has generously repaid the daring nature of Juno's mission. (892 words)
* "caused" Special outline, to differentiate from "cost"